calwebb_spec2: Stage 2 Spectroscopic Processing

Class

jwst.pipeline.Spec2Pipeline

Alias

calwebb_spec2

The Spec2Pipeline applies additional instrumental corrections and calibrations to countrate products that result in a fully calibrated individual exposure. There are two general configurations for this pipeline, depending on whether the data are to be treated as Time Series Observation (TSO). In general, for non-TSO exposures, all applicable steps are applied to the data. For TSO exposures, some steps are set to be skipped by default (see the list of steps in the table below).

The Spec2Pipeline is the “Swiss army knife” of pipeline modules, containing many steps that are only applied to certain instruments or instrument modes. The logic for determining which steps are appropriate is built into the pipeline module itself and determined by the CRDS pars-spec2pipeline parameter reference file. Logic is mostly based on either the instrument name or the exposure type (EXP_TYPE keyword) of the data.

Science Exposures

The list of steps shown in the table below indicates which steps are applied to various spectroscopic modes for JWST science exposures, including TSO exposures. The instrument mode abbreviations used in the table are as follows:

  • NIRSpec FS = Fixed Slit

  • NIRSpec MOS = Multi-Object Spectroscopy

  • NIRSpec IFU = Integral Field Unit

  • MIRI FS = LRS Fixed Slit

  • MIRI SL = LRS Slitless

  • MIRI MRS = Medium Resolution Spectroscopy (IFU)

  • NIRISS SOSS = Single Object Slitless Spectroscopy

  • NIRISS and NIRCam WFSS = Wide-Field Slitless Spectroscopy

Instrument/Mode

NIRSpec

MIRI

NIRISS

NIRCam

All

Step

FS

MOS

IFU

FS

SL

MRS

SOSS

WFSS

WFSS

TSO

assign_wcs

background

imprint

msaflagopen

extract_2d1

srctype1

master_background

wavecorr

flat_field1

straylight

fringe

pathloss

barshadow

wfss_contam

photom

resample_spec

cube_build

extract_1d

1The exact order of the extract_2d, srctype, and flat_field steps depends on the observing mode. For NIRISS and NIRCam WFSS, as well as NIRCam TSO grism exposures, the order is flat_field followed by extract_2d (no wavecorr or srctype). For all other modes the order is extract_2d, srctype, wavecorr, and flat_field.

Notice that NIRSpec MOS is the only mode to receive master background subtraction in the calwebb_spec2 pipeline. All other spectral modes have master background subtraction applied in the calwebb_spec3 pipeline.

The resample_spec step produces a resampled/rectified product for non-IFU modes of some spectroscopic exposures. If the resample_spec step is not applied to a given exposure, the extract_1d operation will be performed on the original (unresampled) data. The cube_build step produces a resampled/rectified cube for IFU exposures, which is then used as input to the extract_1d step.

NIRSpec Lamp Exposures

The Spec2Pipeline works slightly differently for NIRSpec lamp exposures. These are identified by the EXP_TYPE values of NRS_LAMP, NRS_AUTOWAVE or NRS_AUTOFLAT. Using the EXP_TYPE keyword in this way means that another keyword is needed to specify whether the data are Fixed Slit, MOS, IFU or Brightobj. This is the OPMODE keyword, which maps to the jwst.datamodel attribute .meta.instrument.lamp_mode. This keyword can take the following values in exposures that undergo Spec2Pipeline processing:

  • BRIGHTOBJ = Bright Object mode (uses fixed slits)

  • FIXEDSLIT = Fixed slit mode

  • IFU = Integral Field Unit mode

  • MSASPEC = Multi-Object Spectrograph Mode

OPMODE can also take the values of GRATING-ONLY and NONE, but only in some engineering-only situations, and can take the value of IMAGE for imaging data. None of these values will trigger the execution of the Spec2Pipeline.

NIRSpec calibration lamps are identified by the LAMP keyword, which maps to the jwst.datamodel attribute .meta.instrument.lamp_state. The lamps are either line lamps, used for wavelength calibration, or continuum lamps, which are used for flatfielding. Each is paired with a specific grating:

Lamp name

Wavelength range (micron)

Used with grating

FLAT1

1.0 - 1.8

G140M, G140H

FLAT2

1.7 - 3.0

G235M, G235H

FLAT3

2.9 - 5.0

G395M, G395H

FLAT4

0.7 - 1.4

G140M, G140H

FLAT5

1.0 - 5.0

PRISM

LINE1

1.0 - 1.8

G140M, G140H

LINE2

1.7 - 3.0

G235M, G235H

LINE3

2.9 - 5.0

G395M, G395H

LINE4

0.6 - 5.0

PRISM

REF

1.3 - 1.7

G140M, G140H

The pairing comes because the calibration unit lightpath doesn’t pass through the filter wheel, so each lamp has its own filter identical to those in the filter wheel.

The list of Spec2Pipeline steps to be run for NIRSpec lamp exposures is shown in the table below and indicates which steps are applied to various spectroscopic modes. The instrument mode abbreviations used in the table are as follows:

  • NIRSpec FS = Fixed Slit (also Brightobj)

  • NIRSpec MOS = Multi-Object Spectroscopy

  • NIRSpec IFU = Integral Field Unit

Pipeline Step

NRS_LAMP

NRS_AUTOWAVE

NRS_AUTOFLAT

(MOS only)

LINE

FLAT

assign_wcs

ALL

ALL

ALL

ALL

background

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

imprint

NONE

IFU

NONE

NONE

msaflagopen

MOS, IFU

MOS, IFU

MOS, IFU

MOS

extract_2d

MOS, FS

MOS, FS

MOS, FS

MOS

srctype

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

wavecorr

ALL

ALL

ALL

ALL

flat_field

NONE

  • D-FLAT

ALL

ALL

ALL

  • S-FLAT

ALL

NONE

ALL

  • F-FLAT

NONE

NONE

NONE

pathloss

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

barshadow

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

photom

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

resample_spec

MOS, FS

NONE

MOS, FS

NONE

cube_build

IFU

NONE

IFU

NONE

extract_1d

ALL

NONE

ALL

NONE

In the resample_spec and cube_build steps, the spectra are transformed to a space of (wavelength, offset along the slit) without applying a tangent plane projection.

Arguments

The calwebb_spec2 pipeline has two optional arguments.

--save_bsub (boolean, default=False)

If set to True, the results of the background subtraction step will be saved to an intermediate file, using a product type of “_bsub” or “_bsubints”, depending on whether the data are 2D (averaged over integrations) or 3D (per-integration results).

--save_wfss_esec (boolean, default=False)

If set to True, an intermediate image product is created for WFSS exposures that is in units of electrons/sec, instead of the normal DN/sec units that are used throughout the rest of processing. This product can be useful for doing off-line specialized processing of WFSS images. This product is created after the background and flat-field steps have been applied, but before the extract_2d step, so that it is the full WFSS image. The conversion to units of electrons/sec is accomplished by loading the GAIN reference file, computing the mean gain across all pixels (excluding reference pixels), and multiplying the WFSS image by the mean gain. The intermediate file will have a product type of “_esec”. Only applies to WFSS exposures.

Inputs

2D or 3D countrate data

Data model

ImageModel, IFUImageModel, or CubeModel

File suffix

_rate or _rateints

The input to the Spec2Pipeline pipeline is a countrate exposure, in the form of either “_rate” or “_rateints” data. A single input file can be processed or an ASN file listing multiple inputs can be used, in which case the processing steps will be applied to each input exposure, one at a time. If “_rateints” products are used as input, each step applies its algorithm to each integration in the exposure, where appropriate.

Note that the steps background and imprint can only be executed when the pipeline is given an ASN file as input, because they rely on multiple, associated exposures to perform their tasks. The ASN file must list not only the input science exposure(s), but must also list the exposures to be used as background or imprint.

Background subtraction for Wide-Field Slitless Spectroscopy (WFSS) exposures, on the other hand, is accomplished by scaling and subtracting a master background image contained in a CRDS reference file and hence does not require an ASN as input.

The input data model type IFUImageModel is only used for MIRI MRS and NIRSpec IFU exposures.

Outputs

2D or 3D background-subtracted data

Data model

ImageModel, IFUImageModel, or CubeModel

File suffix

_bsub or _bsubints

This is an intermediate product that is only created if “–save_bsub” is set to True and will contain the data as output from the background step. If the input is a “_rate” product, this will be a “_bsub” product, while “_rateints” inputs will be saved as “_bsubints.”

2D or 3D calibrated data

Data model

ImageModel, IFUImageModel, CubeModel, SlitModel, or MultiSlitModel

File suffix

_cal or _calints

The output is a fully calibrated, but unrectified, exposure, using the product type suffix “_cal” or “_calints”, depending on the type of input, e.g. “jw80600012001_02101_00003_mirimage_cal.fits.” This is the output of the photom step, or whichever step is performed last before applying either resample_spec, cube_build, or extract_1d.

The output data model type can be any of the 4 listed above and is completely dependent on the type of input data and the observing mode. For data sets that do not go through extract_2d processing, the output will be either a ImageModel, IFUImageModel, or CubeModel, matching the corresponding input data type.

Of the data types that do go through extract_2d processing, the output type will consist of either a single slit model or a multi-slit model:

  • NIRSpec Bright-Object and NIRCam TSO Grism: SlitModel

  • NIRSpec Fixed Slit and MOS, as well as WFSS: MultiSlitModel

The multi-slit model is simply an array of multiple slit models, each one containing the data and relevant meta data for a particular extracted slit or source. A MultiSlitModel product will contain multiple tuples of SCI, ERR, DQ, WAVELENGTH, etc. arrays; one for each of the extracted slits/sources.

2D resampled data

Data model

SlitModel or MultiSlitModel

File suffix

_s2d

If the input is a 2D exposure type that gets resampled/rectified by the resample_spec step, the rectified 2D spectral product is saved as a “_s2d” file. This image is intended for use as a quick-look product only and is not used in subsequent processing. The 2D unresampled, calibrated (“_cal”) products are passed along as input to subsequent Stage 3 processing.

If the input to the resample_spec step is a MultiSlitModel, then the resampled output will be in the form of a MultiSlitModel, which contains an array of individual models, one per slit. Otherwise the output will be a single SlitModel.

3D resampled (IFU cube) data

Data model

IFUCubeModel

File suffix

_s3d

If the data are NIRSpec IFU or MIRI MRS, the result of the cube_build step will be 3D IFU spectroscopic cube saved to a “_s3d” file. The IFU cube is built from the data contained in a single exposure and is intended for use as a quick-look product only. The 2D unresampled, calibrated (“_cal”) products are passed along as input to subsequent Stage 3 processing.

1D extracted spectral data

Data model

MultiSpecModel

File suffix

_x1d or _x1dints

All types of inputs result in a 1D extracted spectral data product, which is saved as a “_x1d” or “_x1dints” file, depending on the input type. Observing modes such as MIRI LRS fixed slit and MRS, NIRCam and NIRISS WFSS, and NIRSpec fixed slit, MOS, and IFU result in an “_x1d” product containing extracted spectral data for one or more slits/sources. TSO modes, such as MIRI LRS slitless, NIRCam TSO grism, NIRISS SOSS, and NIRSpec Bright Object, for which the data are 3D stacks of integrations, result in “_x1dints” products containing extracted spectral data for each integration with the exposure.

PARS-SPEC2PIPELINE Parameter Reference File

REFTYPE

PARS-SPEC2PIPELINE

Data model

N/A

Reference Selection Keywords

CRDS selects appropriate pars-spec2pipeline references based on the following keywords.

Instrument

Keywords

MIRI

TSOVISIT

NIRCAM

CROWDFLD, EXP_TYPE, TSOVISIT

NIRISS

CROWDFLD, EXP_TYPE, TSOVISIT

NIRSPEC

EXP_TYPE, LAMP, OPMODE, TSOVISIT

Standard Keywords

The following table lists the keywords that are required to be present in all reference files. The first column gives the FITS keyword names. The second column gives the jwst data model name for each keyword, which is useful when using data models in creating and populating a new reference file. The third column gives the equivalent meta tag in ASDF reference file headers, which is the same as the name within the data model meta tree (second column).

FITS Keyword

Data Model Name

ASDF meta tag

AUTHOR

model.meta.author

author

DATAMODL

model.meta.model_type

model_type

DATE

model.meta.date

date

DESCRIP

model.meta.description

description

FILENAME

model.meta.filename

N/A

INSTRUME

model.meta.instrument.name

instrument: {name}

PEDIGREE

model.meta.pedigree

pedigree

REFTYPE

model.meta.reftype

reftype

TELESCOP

model.meta.telescope

telescope

USEAFTER

model.meta.useafter

useafter

NOTE: More information on standard required keywords can be found here: Standard Required Keywords